Chemical and biological warfare agents constitute a low-probability, but high-impact risk both to the military and to the civilian population the use of hazardous materials of chemical or biological origin as weapons and for homicide has been documented since ancient times. Glenn cross's dirty war: rhodesia and chemical biological warfare 1975-1980 is a welcome addition to the small, but growing scholarly literature on the history of chemical and biological warfare in 1965, the minority white community in the british territory of rhodesia (officially southern rhodesia) rejected demands that it transfer. Various types of biological warfare (bw) have been practiced repeatedly throughout history this has included the use of biological agents (microbes and plants) as well as the biotoxins, including venoms, derived from them. This article is not intended to address the broader history of chemical and biological (cb) warfare, the doctrine, tactics, or equipment developed to defend military forces from cb warfare agents, or the particular controversies that seem to crop up surrounding this poorly understood topic.
A biological agent is a bacterium, virus, prion, fungus, or biological toxin that can be used in bioterrorism or biological warfare more than 1200 different kinds of biological agents have been described and studied to date. Strategies such as the deliberate targeting and genocide of civilians, chemical weapons, and biological warfare were unheard of during the modern age, prior to the advent of hostilities in world war i. Nti has developed interactive educational tools for anyone who wants to learn more about the threat posed by nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons learn more. Chemical/biological warfare is the term used to describe the use of chemical or biological agents as weapons to injure or kill humans, livestock, or plants chemical weapons are devices that use chemicals to inflict death or injury biological weapons use pathogens or organisms that cause disease.
As the implementing body for the chemical weapons convention, the opcw, with its 193 member states, oversees the global endeavour to permanently and verifiably eliminate chemical weapons. The development of newer, faster, stealthier & more lethal weapons & re-emergence of doctrines that would allow for their battlefield use are eroding the confidence we placed in the norm of non. History of chemical and biological warfare: an american perspective 11 named), in 1911, and the causative agent was iden-tified the next year3 early chemical weaponization proposals and usage. Chemical and biological warfare chemical and biological warfare while limited use of chemicals and disease in warfare dates from ancient times, the origins of modern chemical and biological weapons systems date from the era of the two world wars. A higher form of killing opens with the first devastating battlefield use of lethal gas in world war i, and then investigates the stockpiling of biological weapons during world war ii and in the decades afterward as well as the inhuman experiments con-ducted to test their effectiveness.
The international community banned the use of chemical and biological weapons after world war 1 and reinforced the ban in 1972 and 1993 by prohibiting their development, stockpiling and transfer. We would like to show you a description here but the site won't allow us. The centers for disease control and prevention provides independent oversight to the us chemical weapons elimination program and is an important part of ensuring the safe destruction of chemical warfare material for protection of public and worker health. The use of chemical weapons in the iran-iraq war, followed by the rabta controversy in libya and the threat of chemical and biological attack during the gulf war, dramatised the consequences of the proliferation of chemical and biological weapons. Chemical and biological warfare was considered such an imminent threat that just seven years before the start of wwi, germany, france, britain, and many other western nations had implemented an international treaty against poisonous weapons.
Toxicology 214 (2005) 167-181 history of chemical and biological warfare agents l szinicz∗ bundeswehr institute of pharmacology and toxicology, neuherbergstr 11, d-80937 munich, germany. Medical aspects of chemical and biological warfare medical aspects of biological warfare / senior editor, zygmunt f dembek history of biological weapons. Because of the increased threat of terrorism, the risk posed by various microorganisms as biological weapons needs to be evaluated and the historical development and use of biological agents better understood biological warfare agents may be more potent than conventional and chemical weapons.
Chemical and biological warfare isn't new even in ancient times, war wasn't all swords and longbows some examples: unrestricted use of chemical agents caused 1 million of the 26 million. In late 1942, the usa, then at war, lent its considerable resources—scientific and technological expertise, laboratories and production facilities, military officers and troops, testing grounds and a refitted munitions factory—to what soon became the largest biological warfare project thus far in history.
Biological weapon: biological weapon, any of a number of disease-producing agents—such as bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, fungi, toxins, or other biological agents—that may be utilized as weapons against humans, animals, or plants. Informative review of the history of biological and chemical warfare during the 20th century the book is from 2002, however, and therefore information about the development and use of such weapons during the war on terror is not included. A timely and balanced historical survey, chemical and biological weapons will be of interest to readers studying the proliferation and use of chemical and biological warfare and the reactions of the international community throughout the last several decades.